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- There are five facilities in the United States dedicated to recycling electric car batteries as it’s still a relatively new industry. Observers say this is not an obstacle to recycling lithium-ion batteries, however.
- One electric car battery recycling method can recover up to 95% of its materials.
As part of his $10 billion zero-emission vehicle plan to fight climate change, California Gov. Gavin Newsom wants to phase out gasoline-powered cars in favor of electric powered ones by 2035. And President Joe Biden’s Inflation Reduction Act, passed Aug. 7 by the U.S. Senate, would give Americans a tax credit of up to $7,500 to defray the cost of buying an electric vehicle.
But an Instagram post claims difficulty with recycling lithium-ion batteries, the fuel cells in electric vehicles, will render this push toward zero-emission vehicles impractical.
The woman makes several claims, including that the push for more electric cars is not a "sustainable solution" as there isn’t a plant in California that can recycle their batteries once they die.
"There’s only three (electric car battery recycling plants) in the United States, and they can only recycle about 10% of the materials, which means the balance will go into landfills," she says. "This could do more damage to our planet in a matter of 10 years than fossil fuels have done in 100 years."
The post was flagged as part of Facebook’s efforts to combat false news and misinformation on its News Feed. Instagram is owned by Facebook’s parent company, Meta. (Read more about our partnership with Facebook.)
While the woman was right in saying California doesn't have a plant dedicated to recycling electric car batteries, the situation isn't as dire as she claimed. The woman was also wrong in her statement about the recyclability of lithium-ion car batteries.
Most electric car batteries last at least 100,000 miles before their ability to hold a charge seriously degrades, according to Carfax. With Americans driving an average of 13,476 miles each year, that translates to at least seven years of reliable service.
Most batteries will go for significantly longer than the initial 100,000 miles before dying.
The first major wave of electric car batteries dying off is expected to happen within the next 10 to 15 years, the BBC reported.
Unlike lead-acid batteries, which are small and easily recyclable, electric cars use battery packs that are larger and composed of hundreds of individual lithium-ion batteries. The hazardous materials within a battery pack can spark a fire or explode if handled or disposed of incorrectly.
Also, California lacks an electric car battery recycling plant; there are only five such facilities currently operating in the U.S.
However, Alissa Kendall, a UC Davis civil and environmental engineering professor, told PolitiFact that California not having a recycling facility was a "particularly irrelevant" point, as there are "many things we recycle or process in the U.S. economy that don’t have a site in every state."
Kendall said Nevada-based Redwood Materials launched an electric car battery recycling program in California in February and partnered with California car dealerships and battery dismantlers to collect lithium-ion batteries. The batteries will be sent to Redwood’s recycling facility in Nevada.
Kendall was the lead author of a California Environmental Protection Agency report in May that said electric car battery recycling was a relatively new, but growing industry.The report also made several recommendations to the California Legislature for improving electric car battery recycling.
Meanwhile, there are several ways to recycle electric car batteries, all of which reclaim significantly more material than the 10% the Instagram video cited.
One method is through smelting, which melts a battery down at a high temperature until its materials separate from one another. Because this method requires a lot of greenhouse gas-producing energy but recovers only about 40% to 50% of a battery’s material, it’s less widely used, the Canadian Broadcasting Corp. reported..
The other two recycling methods, which are more widely used, involve shredding lithium-ion batteries into small pieces.
A shredded battery can be recycled directly, by removing and separating its parts by hand, or through hydrometallurgy, in which the batteries' pieces are submerged in a solution and chemically separated. These shredding methods can recover up to 90% to 95% of a battery’s components.
Kendall said lithium-ion batteries’ worst-case environmental impact would still be less than fossil fuels’.
"While we certainly can improve mining practices and recycling systems for every material and product in our economy, there are very few measures whereby oil and gas extraction and refining are less harmful than lithium extraction (for electric car batteries)," she said.
A woman in an Instagram video claims California’s push for electric cars is not sustainable in part because California does not have a recycling facility that can handle the lithium-ion batteries in cars and that the recycling facilities in the country can recycle only 10% of the batteries’ material.
While California so far has no lithium-ion battery recycling plant, the California Environmental Protection Agency report said lithium-ion battery recycling is still a fairly new industry with room for growth. Also, companies from other states are partnering with California to recycle its batteries.
Furthermore, current recycling methods can recover from half to up to 95% of the material used lithium-ion batteries, far more than the post’s claim of a 10% recovery rate.
We rate this claim False.
Office of Gov. Gavin Newsom, Governor Newsom Outlines Historic $10 Billion Zero-Emission Vehicle Package to Lead the World’s Transition to Clean Energy, Combat Climate Change, Jan. 26, 2022
Instagram post, June 16, 2022
Archive of June 16, 2022 Instagram post
Instagram post, June 9, 2022
Archive of June 9, 2022 Instagram post
PolitiFact, "Can Californians Charge Electric Cars During Summer Heat," July 2, 2021
California Energy Commission, Electric Vehicle Chargers in California, accessed Aug. 5, 2022
California Energy Commission, Light-Duty Vehicle Population in California, accessed Aug. 5, 2022
California Energy Commission, Report Shows California Needs 1.2 Million Electric Vehicle Chargers by 2030, June 9, 2021
The San Francisco Chronicle, "California isn’t building enough charging stations for electric cars," June 11, 2021
Federal Highway Administration, President Biden, USDOT and USDOE Announce $5 Billion over Five Years for National EV Charging Network, Made Possible by Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, Feb. 10, 2022
CARFAX, How Long Do Electric Car Batteries Last, Oct. 26, 2021
Federal Highway Administration, Average Annual Miles per Driver by Age Group, May 31, 2022
BBC, "Electric cars: What will happen to all the dead batteries," April 27, 2021
Illinois Library, Battery Recycling: Battery recycling facts, July 28, 2022
Orange County Register, "What happens when millions of electric car batteries get old," Jan. 27, 2022
Email with Alissa Kendall, July 24, 2022
Redwood Materials, Redwood Materials creates the first pathways for end-of-life electric vehicles; kicks off in California, Feb. 17, 2022
CalEPA, Lithium-ion Car Battery Recycling Advisory Group Final Report, March 16, 2022
CBC, Are EV batteries recyclable? Your questions answered, May 28, 2022
Reuters, Explainer: Are lithium-ion batteries in EVs a fire hazard?, Aug. 23, 2021
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